Natural & Nature-Based/Green: either natural or nature-based features including as existing ecosystems or ecological features, as well as human-built interventions that are engineered to mimic the characteristics of eco-system services. Examples include beach nourishment, preservation or construction of wetlands, constructing and seeding oyster reefs.
Structural/Grey: traditional engineering approaches such as levees, barriers, seawalls, breakwaters.
Regulatory & Cultural/Non-structural: modifications in public policy, management practices, regulations, and design practices as well as local capacity building actions. Examples include information campaigns to increase local understanding of the role of mangroves in impact reduction; relocation of residents out of hazard zones; changes in building codes; investments in governance systems to enable implementation of plans.
Hybrid or Integrated: approaches that combine features of natural, nature-based, structural, regulatory, and/or cultural measures to reduce coastal risk. An example would be relocating houses out of a flood plain and replacing them with constructed wetlands and flood gates.